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Chicago 17th

The Chicago style uses two different styles:

  1. Author-Date Style (also referred to as Reference Style or Turabian).
  2. Notes and Bibliography Style (also referred to as Bibliography Style).

Styles Differences

  • The Author-Date style (Turabian) is shorter and contains fewer instructions and it does not contain information about the publication. It is a simplified version of Chicago designed for students writing research papers. 

  • The Notes and Bibliography style is designed for professionals in the field who are publishing and has a great deal of instruction on formatting and many other things.

  • Check with your professor about which style you should use.


Author-Date Style 

Notes and Bibliography Style

Is this style called something else?

  • Reference style
  • Turabian
  • Bibliography style.

 Who uses this style?

 College students.

Those who want to publish.

Where can I find guidelines for this style?

Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Turabian.

Chicago Manual of Style.

How do I format a citation?

The sources are cited in-text, with the author's last name and year of publication in parenthesis. 

Ex.: (Coms 2022).

The sources are cited as superscripts in the text and then in full in the footnotes/endnotes.

Ex.: the variation of words supports the feelings of the main character.9

What is the list of sources at the end of the paper called? References Bibliography

Do I need to include a list of the sources I used in the text?

Yes. The sources noted in the text are reported in the section called References.

Maybe. Because all sources are fully listed in the footnotes/endnotes, the section Bibliography may not be requested. Check with your professor.

Are the citations in the References and Bibliography formatted the same? Yes

Do I need to include a Title Page?

Yes. Do not write a page number or a running head.

Is everything double-spaced?

No. Elements that are single-spaced are:

  • Footnotes or endnotes
  • Bibliographies or References
  • Table of contents
  • List of figures