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Nursing

EBP

From most relevant to clinical setting to least

 

What information they include

Best to use

What to use

Meta-analysis

 

Combine all the results of different studies using statistical methods

To determine the common effect or the reason of a variation in different type of studies

 

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

PubMed- in your search use: “AND” meta-analysis

 

Systematic review

 

Synthesizes randomized controlled trials to determine specific medical interventions  

When more primary research is needed. They are specific and clearly defined

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

PubMed- in your search use the “Find Systematic reviews” filter, or “AND” systematic[sb]

 

Randomized controlled trial

This is a controlled trial that compares patients with varying degrees of an illness to a gold standard and administers both diagnostic tests to all of the patients in the study

 

Etiology

Diagnosis test

Prevention

Therapy

 

Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials

PubMed- in your search use the “Therapy” filter, or “AND” randomized controlled trial

Cohort study

The results of a longitudinal study of a population who has a specific illness/treatment, are compared to another group that does not have the illness/treatment. Cohort studies are observational and not as reliable as randomized controlled studies

 

Etiology

Prevention Prognosis

 

PubMed- in your search use: “AND” cohort study

Case control study

 

In these studies, patients with a definite condition are compared with patients who do not. Researchers conduct a retrospective analysis of the patient’s medical records to find possible insight. These studies are based on statistical relationships, which does not explain how one factor can cause the other.

 

Etiology

Prevention Prognosis

 

PubMed- in your search use: “AND” case control study

Case series/ Case report

 

Are collections of reports on the treatment of individual/single patient. Because no control groups are used they have no statistical validity.

Etiology

Prognosis

 

PubMed- in your search use: “AND” case report