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Turabian Citation Guide: Notes and Bibliography Style

This guide details how to write citations based on Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations 7th Edition.

Notes and Bibliography Style

With this style of Turabian citation, you indicate you have used a source with a superscript number at the end of the sentence that refers to the source.  This superscript number is your "note number" in the citation.  You then cite the source in a correspondingly numbered note printed at the bottom of the page as a footnote, or in a list of endnotes at the end of your paper.  Notes have a general form, and if you cite the text again you may shorten them.  

Additionally, you list all of your sources at the end of the paper in a bibliography.  Each entry contains the same note as your first note for each work you cited: however, list the author's last name first in these instances, and arrange the bibliography entries in alphabetical order from there.  

Basic Format (First time work is cited, include in notes at bottom of page designated by note number in-text..)  

      Note number. Author(s) or Editor of Work, "Title of Work," in Title of Multiauthor Work,ed. Name of Editor if given (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of publication), page number if pdf, Persistent URL or DOI (accessed date of access).

Basic Format (Each subsequent time a work is cited, include note number in-text, utilize shortened version.)

   Note number. Author or Editor of Work, Shortened Title, Page Numbers.

Sample Citations in Notes and Bibliography Style

Each example is followed by a second example detailing how to shorten the citation if you are referring to the same material again in the paper.  Make sure each note has its own number.  Don't get confused and include a "1." for a book and another "1." for a journal in the same paper.  Number in order of appearance.

(Book, One Author)

   1. Stephen Crane. The Red Badge of Courage. (New York: D. Appleton and Company,  1896.) 62-65.
   2. Crane, Red Badge of Courage, 89,

(Book, Two or More Authors)

   1. John Doe and Jane Doe. A Book. (Boston: Made-Up Publishing, 2014.) 23-29.
   2. Doe and Doe. A Book. 39.

(Book, Editor or Translator instead of Author)

   1. Pierre Douchand, trans., Beowulf (New York: New York Press, 1969), 98–189.
   2. Douchand, Beowulf, 24-39.

(Book, Editor or Translator in addition to Author)

   1. Mike Waters, Waters of Life: Edited Version, ed. John Smith (Slippery Rock, PA: Slippery Rock Press, 2014), 319–29.
   2. Waters, Waters of Life, 339.

(Chapter or other part of a book)

   1. Lance Cremonese, “Introduction to Rocconomics,” in Made-Up Means of Defining Economies, ed. Terry Wayne (Chicago: University of Chiago Press, 2013), 239.
   2. Cremonese, “Rocconomics,” 243–49.

(Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book)

   1. Jim Ross, foreword to Mankind: A Tale of Blood and Sweatsocks, by Mick Foley (Dallas: Champion Books, 2010), ix.
   2. Ross, foreword, x–xi.

(Book Published Electronically)

   1. Lorne Amadio, Saga of Star Ships and Star Worlds (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2013), 219, accessed May 26, 2014, ProQuest Ebrary.
   2. Amadio, Saga

(Article in a Print Journal)

   1. Alejandro Chase, “Swollen Joints and Endopsychosis,” Journal of Made Up Maladies 29, no. 3 (June 2013): 159.
   2. Chase, “Swollen Joints,” 189.

(Article in an Online Journal)

   1. Leroy Brown, “Pass-Blocking Guidelines,” Journal of American Football 129, no. 2 (April 2008): 657, accessed April 1, 2012,
   2. Nina Rondez, “Understanding the Nintendo-Sega Dynamic,” Video Game Research 4, no. 5 (October 2013): 18, accessed April 9, 2012, Academic OneFile.
   3. Brown, “Pass-Blocking,” 761.
   4. Rondez, “Understanding,” 18–21.

(Magazine Article)

   1. Bruce Wayne, “Life in the Batcave,” New Yorker, February 23, 1982, 57.
   2. Wayne, “Life in the Batcave,” 60–67.

(Newspaper Article)

   1. Elisabeth Bumiller and Thom Shanker, “Pentagon Lifts Ban on Women in Combat,” New York Times, January 23, 2013, accessed January 24, 2013,
   2. Bumiller and Shanker, “Pentagon Lifts Ban.”


   1. “Privacy Policy,” Facebook Policies, last modified July 29, 2014, accessed January 3, 2015,
   2. Facebook, “Privacy Policy.”

(Blog Entry or Comment)   

   1. Gary Seven, “Earth is a Very Strange Planet and I Like It Not At All,” Seven's Reporting Blog, July 1, 1962, accessed February 16, 2012,
   2. Seven, “Earth”

Note: The examples above were made using made up authors, books, etc.  Any resemblance to actual individuals, works, publishers, etc. is purely coincidental and not reflective of the works and publications of similarly-named persons or entities.